On This Date: November 11th

Nov 11, 1918:

World War I ends

At the 11th hour on the 11th day of the 11th month of 1918, the Great War ends. At 5 a.m. that morning, Germany, bereft of manpower and supplies and faced with imminent invasion, signed an armistice agreement with the Allies in a railroad car outside Compiégne, France. The First World War left nine million soldiers dead and 21 million wounded, with Germany, Russia, Austria-Hungary, France, and Great Britain each losing nearly a million or more lives. In addition, at least five million civilians died from disease, starvation, or exposure.

World War I Memorial 13.jpg

Victoria Belanger via Flickr

On June 28, 1914, in an event that is widely regarded as sparking the outbreak of World War I, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austro-Hungarian empire, was shot to death with his wife by Bosnian Serb Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo, Bosnia. Ferdinand had been inspecting his uncle’s imperial armed forces in Bosnia and Herzegovina, despite the threat of Serbian nationalists who wanted these Austro-Hungarian possessions to join newly independent Serbia. Austria-Hungary blamed the Serbian government for the attack and hoped to use the incident as justification for settling the problem of Slavic nationalism once and for all. However, as Russia supported Serbia, an Austro-Hungarian declaration of war was delayed until its leaders received assurances from German leader Kaiser Wilhelm II that Germany would support their cause in the event of a Russian intervention.

On July 28, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, and the tenuous peace between Europe’s great powers collapsed. On July 29, Austro-Hungarian forces began to shell the Serbian capital, Belgrade, and Russia, Serbia’s ally, ordered a troop mobilization against Austria-Hungary. France, allied with Russia, began to mobilize on August 1. France and Germany declared war against each other on August 3. After crossing through neutral Luxembourg, the German army invaded Belgium on the night of August 3-4, prompting Great Britain, Belgium’s ally, to declare war against Germany.

For the most part, the people of Europe greeted the outbreak of war with jubilation. Most patriotically assumed that their country would be victorious within months. Of the initial belligerents, Germany was most prepared for the outbreak of hostilities, and its military leaders had formatted a sophisticated military strategy known as the “Schlieffen Plan,” which envisioned the conquest of France through a great arcing offensive through Belgium and into northern France. Russia, slow to mobilize, was to be kept occupied by Austro-Hungarian forces while Germany attacked France.

The Schlieffen Plan was nearly successful, but in early September the French rallied and halted the German advance at the bloody Battle of the Marne near Paris. By the end of 1914, well over a million soldiers of various nationalities had been killed on the battlefields of Europe, and neither for the Allies nor the Central Powers was a final victory in sight. On the western front—the battle line that stretched across northern France and Belgium—the combatants settled down in the trenches for a terrible war of attrition.

In 1915, the Allies attempted to break the stalemate with an amphibious invasion of Turkey, which had joined the Central Powers in October 1914, but after heavy bloodshed the Allies were forced to retreat in early 1916. The year 1916 saw great offensives by Germany and Britain along the western front, but neither side accomplished a decisive victory. In the east, Germany was more successful, and the disorganized Russian army suffered terrible losses, spurring the outbreak of the Russian Revolution in 1917. By the end of 1917, the Bolsheviks had seized power in Russia and immediately set about negotiating peace with Germany. In 1918, the infusion of American troops and resources into the western front finally tipped the scale in the Allies’ favor. Germany signed an armistice agreement with the Allies on November 11, 1918.

World War I was known as the “war to end all wars” because of the great slaughter and destruction it caused. Unfortunately, the peace treaty that officially ended the conflict—the Treaty of Versailles of 1919—forced punitive terms on Germany that destabilized Europe and laid the groundwork for World War II.

Also on This Day

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Poor leadership leads to Cherry Valley Massacre, 1778
Automotive
The General Lee jumps into history, 1978
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Confederate General Benjamin McCulloch is born, 1811
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Soviet Union refuses to play Chile in World Cup Soccer, 1973
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Police make a grisly discovery in Dorothea Puente’s lawn, 1988
Disaster
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General Interest
Nat Turner executed in Virginia, 1831
George Patton born, 1885
Dedication of the Tomb of the Unknowns, 1921
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Interview with the Vampire debuts, 1994
Literary
Louisa May Alcott publishes her first story, 1852
Music
Donna Summer earns her first #1 pop hit with “MacArthur Park”, 1978
Old West
Massive dust storm sweeps South Dakota, 1933
Presidential
Franklin Pierce marries Jane Appleton, 1834
James Garfield marries Lucretia Rudolph, 1858
Sports
Fernando Valenzuela wins Cy Young Award, 1981
Vietnam War
Viet Cong release U.S. prisoners of war, 1967
Operation Commando Hunt commences, 1968
Long Binh base turned over to South Vietnam, 1972
World War I
World War I ends, 1918
World War II
Draft age is lowered to 18, 1942

This Week in History, Nov 11 – Nov 17

Nov 11, 1918
World War I ends
Nov 12, 1954
Ellis Island closes
Nov 13, 1982
Vietnam Veterans Memorial dedicated
Nov 14, 1851
Moby-Dick published
Nov 15, 1867
First stock ticker debuts
Nov 16, 1532
Pizarro traps Incan emperor Atahualpa
Nov 17, 1558
Elizabethan Age begins
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On This Date- November 9th

Nov 9, 1938:

Nazis launch Kristallnacht

On this day in 1938, in an event that would foreshadow the Holocaust, German Nazis launch a campaign of terror against Jewish people and their homes and businesses in Germany and Austria. The violence, which continued through November 10 and was later dubbed “Kristallnacht,” or “Night of Broken Glass,” after the countless smashed windows of Jewish-owned establishments, left approximately 100 Jews dead, 7,500 Jewish businesses damaged and hundreds of synagogues, homes, schools and graveyards vandalized. An estimated 30,000 Jewish men were arrested, many of whom were then sent to concentration camps for several months; they were released when they promised to leave Germany. Kristallnacht represented a dramatic escalation of the campaign started by Adolf Hitler in 1933 when he became chancellor to purge Germany of its Jewish population.

Berlin's Fasanenstrasse synagogue after Krista...

The Nazis used the murder of a low-level German diplomat in Paris by a 17-year-old Polish Jew as an excuse to carry out the Kristallnacht attacks. On November 7, 1938, Ernst vom Rath was shot outside the German embassy by Herschel Grynszpan, who wanted revenge for his parents’ sudden deportation from Germany to Poland, along with tens of thousands of other Polish Jews. Following vom Rath’s death, Nazi propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels ordered German storm troopers to carry out violent riots disguised as “spontaneous demonstrations” against Jewish citizens. Local police and fire departments were told not to interfere. In the face of all the devastation, some Jews, including entire families, committed suicide.

In the aftermath of Kristallnacht, the Nazis blamed the Jews and fined them 1 billion marks (or $400 million in 1938 dollars) for vom Rath’s death. As repayment, the government seized Jewish property and kept insurance money owed to Jewish people. In its quest to create a master Aryan race, the Nazi government enacted further discriminatory policies that essentially excluded Jews from all aspects of public life.

The aftermath of Kristallnacht, Jewish shops v...

Over 100,000 Jews fled Germany for other countries after Kristallnacht. The international community was outraged by the violent events of November 9 and 10. Some countries broke off diplomatic relations in protest, but the Nazis suffered no serious consequences, leading them to believe they could get away with the mass murder that was the Holocaust, in which an estimated 6 million European Jews died.

Also on This Day

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Sartre renounces communists, 1956
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Old West
Followers of Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse identified as hostile, 1875
Presidential
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Sports
Army and Notre Dame fight to a draw, 1946
Vietnam War
Antiwar protestor sets himself afire, 1965
Captain Lance Sijan shot down over North Vietnam, 1967
Supreme Court refuses to rule on legality of Vietnam War, 1970
World War I
Australian warship Sydney sinks German Emden , 1914
World War II
“The Night of Broken Glass”, 1938

This Week in History, Nov 9 – Nov 15

 

Nov 09, 1938
Nazis launch Kristallnacht
Nov 10, 1969
Sesame Street debuts
Nov 11, 1918
World War I ends
Nov 12, 1954
Ellis Island closes
Nov 13, 1982
Vietnam Veterans Memorial dedicated
Nov 14, 1851
Moby-Dick published
Nov 15, 1867
First stock ticker debuts

On This Date: November 8th

Nov 8, 1895:

German scientist discovers X-rays

On this day in 1895, physicist Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen (1845-1923) becomes the first person to observe X-rays, a significant scientific advancement that would ultimately benefit a variety of fields, most of all medicine, by making the invisible visible. Rontgen’s discovery occurred accidentally in his Wurzburg, Germany, lab, where he was testing whether cathode rays could pass through glass when he noticed a glow coming from a nearby chemically coated screen. He dubbed the rays that caused this glow X-rays because of their unknown nature.

X-ray image of the paranasal sinuses, lateral ...

X-rays are electromagnetic energy waves that act similarly to light rays, but at wavelengths approximately 1,000 times shorter than those of light. Rontgen holed up in his lab and conducted a series of experiments to better understand his discovery. He learned that X-rays penetrate human flesh but not higher-density substances such as bone or lead and that they can be photographed.

Rontgen’s discovery was labeled a medical miracle and X-rays soon became an important diagnostic tool in medicine, allowing doctors to see inside the human body for the first time without surgery. In 1897, X-rays were first used on a military battlefield, during the Balkan War, to find bullets and broken bones inside patients.

Scientists were quick to realize the benefits of X-rays, but slower to comprehend the harmful effects of radiation. Initially, it was believed X-rays passed through flesh as harmlessly as light. However, within several years, researchers began to report cases of burns and skin damage after exposure to X-rays, and in 1904, Thomas Edison’s assistant, Clarence Dally, who had worked extensively with X-rays, died of skin cancer. Dally’s death caused some scientists to begin taking the risks of radiation more seriously, but they still weren’t fully understood. During the 1930s, 40s and 50s, in fact, many American shoe stores featured shoe-fitting fluoroscopes that used to X-rays to enable customers to see the bones in their feet; it wasn’t until the 1950s that this practice was determined to be risky business. Wilhelm Rontgen received numerous accolades for his work, including the first Nobel Prize in physics in 1901, yet he remained modest and never tried to patent his discovery. Today, X-ray technology is widely used in medicine, material analysis and devices such as airport security scanners.

Also on This Day

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President Lincoln is re-elected, 1864
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John F. Kennedy elected president, 1960
Crime
Ted Bundy botches an abduction attempt, 1974
Disaster
Hurricane Gordon is born, 1994
General Interest
Louvre Museum opens, 1793
Beer Hall Putsch begins, 1923
The Republican Revolution, 1994
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Margaret Mitchell is born, 1900
Music
Salvatore “Sonny” Bono is elected to the U.S. Congress, 1994
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Presidential
FDR broadcasts message to Vichy France leader Marshal Petain, 1942
Sports
Yogi Berra is the AL MVP, 1951
Vietnam War
Lawrence Joel earns Medal of Honor, 1965
World War I
New Russian leader Lenin calls for immediate armistice, 1917
World War II
Hitler survives assassination attempt, 1939

This Week in History, Nov 8 – Nov 14

Nov 08, 1895
German scientist discovers X-rays
Nov 09, 1938
Nazis launch Kristallnacht
Nov 10, 1969
Sesame Street debuts
Nov 11, 1918
World War I ends
Nov 12, 1954
Ellis Island closes
Nov 13, 1982
Vietnam Veterans Memorial dedicated
Nov 14, 1851
Moby-Dick published

News Photo (and Video) Of The Day

Germans claim first flight of manned, electric helicopter

Beate Kern / e-volo

Thomas Senkel of e-volo flies the e-volo multicopter, a battery-powered helicopter with sixteen motors and rotors.

Jim Seida writes

A three-man team from Germany has developed, and flown, a personal helicopter that’s powered by lithium batteries running sixteen motors and turning sixteen rotors. You can read about it in msnbc.com’s Future of Technology blog.  Be sure to check out the video below, too.

Beate Kern / e-volo

The propellers create the full lift, and are also responsible for balancing the device on all three axes only by independent speed control of the motors. E-volo from the beginning has been designed entirely as an electrically powered device. Unlike the rotor of a helicopter, the propellers don´t have any pitch control and therefore no wear. These factors make the multicopter mechanically simple, with close to no maintenance necessary.

At the end of October 2011, Thomas Senkel of e-volo made the first manned flight with an e-powered multicopter at an airstrip in the southwest of Germany. The flight lasted one minute and 30 seconds, after which the constructor and test pilot stated: “The flight characteristics are good natured. Without any steering input it would just hover there on the spot”. This could be the future of flight, piloting a device as simple as a car.

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On This Date: October 31st- Happy Halloween, Milestone- 7 Billion Folks

Oct 31, 1517:

Martin Luther posts 95 theses

On this day in 1517, the priest and scholar Martin Luther approaches the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg, Germany, and nails a piece of paper to it containing the 95 revolutionary opinions that would begin the Protestant Reformation.

Martin Luther by Lucas Cranach. The Protestant...

In his theses, Luther condemned the excesses and corruption of the Roman Catholic Church, especially the papal practice of asking payment—called “indulgences”—for the forgiveness of sins. At the time, a Dominican priest named Johann Tetzel, commissioned by the Archbishop of Mainz and Pope Leo X, was in the midst of a major fundraising campaign in Germany to finance the renovation of St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome. Though Prince Frederick III the Wise had banned the sale of indulgences in Wittenberg, many church members traveled to purchase them. When they returned, they showed the pardons they had bought to Luther, claiming they no longer had to repent for their sins.

Luther’s frustration with this practice led him to write the 95 Theses, which were quickly snapped up, translated from Latin into German and distributed widely. A copy made its way to Rome, and efforts began to convince Luther to change his tune. He refused to keep silent, however, and in 1521 Pope Leo X formally excommunicated Luther from the Catholic Church. That same year, Luther again refused to recant his writings before the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V of Germany, who issued the famous Edict of Worms declaring Luther an outlaw and a heretic and giving permission for anyone to kill him without consequence. Protected by Prince Frederick, Luther began working on a German translation of the Bible, a task that took 10 years to complete.

Portrait of Pope Leo X and his cousins, cardin...

The term “Protestant” first appeared in 1529, when Charles V revoked a provision that allowed the ruler of each German state to choose whether they would enforce the Edict of Worms. A number of princes and other supporters of Luther issued a protest, declaring that their allegiance to God trumped their allegiance to the emperor. They became known to their opponents as Protestants; gradually this name came to apply to all who believed the Church should be reformed, even those outside Germany. By the time Luther died, of natural causes, in 1546, his revolutionary beliefs had formed the basis for the Protestant Reformation, which would over the next three centuries revolutionize Western civilization.

Also on This Day

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President Johnson announces bombing halt, 1968
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Chiang Kai-Shek is born, 1887

This Week in History, Oct 31 – Nov 6

Oct 31, 1517
Martin Luther posts 95 theses
Nov 01, 1512
Sistine Chapel ceiling opens to public
Nov 02, 1947
Spruce Goose flies
Nov 03, 1964
D.C. residents cast first presidential votes
Nov 04, 1956
Soviets put brutal end to Hungarian revolution
Nov 05, 1994
George Foreman becomes oldest heavyweight champ
Nov 06, 1962
U.N. condemns apartheid

It’s A Small World After All

Stunning photos of the very small

The winners of the 2011 Nikon International Small World photography contest were announced Tuesday (Oct. 4), with the winning photograph
of a green lacewing larva taken by Igor Siwanowicz of the Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology in Germany. (LiveScience)

(Credit: Nikon Small World Competition) The Nikon International Small World Competition awards photographers for their renderings of the beauty and complexity of teensy things through the light microscope. The resulting photomicrographs must not only awe but also contribute significantly to various scientific disciplines. From alien-looking insects and worms to cells that would make stunning decorations, the 2011 award-winning photographs are both stunning and informative. Take a stroll into the world of the small.

Small worlds
(Credit: Dr. Igor Siwanowicz Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, Martinsried, Germany) First place in the 2011 Nikon Small World photograph competition went to this photograph of an itsy-bitsy green lacewing larva. The bug landed on photographer Igor Siwanowicz and bit him; Siwanowicz retaliated by turning the insect into art.

Tiny monster

(Credit: Dr. Donna Stolz University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh,Pennsylvania, USA) A blade of grass magnified 200 times took 2nd place in the Nikon Small World photography competition, 2011.

Leaves of grass

Credit: Frank Fox Fachhochschule Trier Trier, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany) The third place winner of the 2011 Nikon Small World contest was this photo of living Melosira monliformis, a type of algae.

Bit of algae

(Credit: Dr. Robin Young The University of British Columbia Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada) Robin Young of the University of British Columbia took 4th place in the Nikon contest with this magnified image of liverwort.

Fluorescent beauty

(Credit: Alfred Pasieka Germany) Get ultra-close with electronics with this
5th-place winner of the Nikon Small World contest. This is the surface of a microchip.

A-maze-ing

(Credit: Dr. Jan Michels Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel Kiel, Germany) The marine copepod Temora longicornis takes on subtle hues in this 9th-place-winning photograph

Itsy-bitsy ocean-dweller

(Credit: Dr. Donna Stolz The University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA) Nikon winner Donna Stolz is ready for Christmas — on a microscopic level, at least. This is a collage of mammalian cells, stained to reveal various proteins and organelles and then assembled into a wreath. Happy holidays!

Really tiny Christmas

Gone To The Dogs

New Purina Pet Food Commercial Aims Directly at Dogs

By Chad Brooks | LiveScience.com

If the way to a man’s heart is through his stomach, the way to a dog’s is through its ears. That’s what Nestlé Purina is banking on with its new advertising campaign, which contains high-pitched noises that only dogs can hear.

The pet food maker has released the first-ever television commercial made especially for dogs. The commercial, which looks and sounds
like any other TV spot to humans, features different sounds — from a squeak similar to that of dog toys and a high-frequency tone like a dog whistle to a soft, high-pitched ping – that are likely to be picked up by canines within earshot.

centre
Image via Wikipedia

Georg Sanders, a nutrition expert and consumer consultant at Nestlé Purina PetCare in Germany, said a dog’s hearing is twice as sharp as a human’s, allowing them to be aware of various frequencies and better differentiate between sounds. While humans can generally hear noises between 64 and 23,000 Hertz (Hz), dogs can hear sounds ranging from 67 to 45,000 Hz, according to research from Louisiana State University.

But, just because the dog can hear the commercial, it doesn’t mean that it will make a positive impression on the animal, according to Sanders.

“The reaction of dogs to the sounds in the commercial depends on how the dog and owner play together, and the dog’s individual experience,”
Sanders said in a prepared release. “Dogs who often play with a squeaky duck as they are running around with their owner will certainly react most strongly to this sound.”

Created for the Nestlé Purina dog food brand Beneful, the 23- second commercial was first broadcast on German TV channels, national Internet
sites and the Beneful website.

It follows the Nestlé Purina “Stop-Sniffing” campaign, where dogs were able to sniff the scent of Beneful dog food from special posters on advertising boards in German towns and cities while out for a walk with their owners.

Nestlé Purina has not said when the commercials will begin airing in the U.S.

Do you know a “funny” business we should write about? Tweet @jeanettebnd. This story was provided by BusinessNewsDaily, a sister site to LiveScience.